Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Scotland.
Aluminium is acutely toxic to fish in acid waters. The gill is the principal target organ and death is due to a combination of ionoregulatory, osmoregulatory and respiratory dysfunction. The toxic mechanism has hitherto received little direct consideration and is unknown. In this paper the mechanism of acute aluminium toxicity is approached from a chemical perspective. Symptomatic evidence of toxicity is taken from the literature and combined with our own research to elucidate a biochemically sound model to describe a possible mechanism of acute aluminium toxicity in fish. The proposed model delineates the chemical conditions immediately adjacent to the gill surface and emphasizes their importance in aluminium's toxic mode of action. The mechanism is shown to be bipartite. Aluminium binding to functional groups both apically located at the gill surface and intracellularly located within lamellar epithelial cells disrupts the barrier properties of the gill epithelium. The concomitant iono- and osmoregulatory dysfunction results in accelerated cell necrosis, sloughing and death of the fish. The mechanism of epithelial cell death is proposed as a general mechanism of aluminium-induced accelerated cell death.
These studies are quite revealing. It is clear that we cannot attain a constructive nor healthy result by intentionally contaminating the earth with the key chemicals used in geoengineering. Clearly these studies indicate that even the legal practice of cloud seeding is detrimental to the environment and health of humans.
Med Hypotheses. 2004;62(5):746-54.
High Barn Farm, Elworthy, Taunton, Somerset TA43PX, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
High level contamination by natural and industrial sources of the alkali earth metal, barium (Ba) has been identified in the ecosystems/workplaces that are associated with high incidence clustering of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurodegenerative diseases such as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Analyses of ecosystems supporting the most renowned MS clusters in Saskatchewan, Sardinia, Massachusetts, Colorado, Guam, NE Scotland demonstrated consistently elevated levels of Ba in soils (mean: 1428 ppm) and vegetation (mean: 74 ppm) in relation to mean levels of 345 and 19 ppm recorded in MS-free regions adjoining. The high levels of Ba stemmed from local quarrying for Ba ores and/or use of Ba in paper/foundry/welding/textile/oil and gas well related industries, as well as from the use of Ba as an atmospheric aerosol spray for enhancing/refracting the signalling of radio/radar waves along military jet flight paths, missile test ranges, etc. It is proposed that chronic contamination of the biosystem with the reactive types of Ba salts can initiate the pathogenesis of MS; due to the conjugation of Ba with free sulphate, which subsequently deprives the endogenous sulphated proteoglycan molecules (heparan sulfates) of their sulphate co partner, thereby disrupting synthesis of S-proteoglycans and their crucial role in the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling which induces oligodendrocyte progenitors to maintain the growth and structural integrity of the myelin sheath. Loss of S-proteoglycan activity explains other key facets of MS pathogenesis; such as the aggregation of platelets and the proliferation of superoxide generated oxidative stress. Ba intoxications disturb the sodium-potassium ion pump--another key feature of the MS profile. The co-clustering of various neurodegenerative diseases in these Ba-contaminated ecosystems suggests that the pathogenesis of all of these diseases could pivot upon a common disruption of the sulphated proteoglycan-growth factor mediated signalling systems. Individual genetics dictates which specific disease emerges at the end of the day.
PMID: 15082100 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
High Barn Farm, Elworthy, Taunton, Somerset TA4 3PX, UK. email@example.com
Elevated levels of aluminium (Al), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) cations - combined with deficiencies of magnesium (Mg)/calcium (Ca) - have been observed in the foodchains that traditionally support the Chamorro populations affected by high incidence clusters of Alzheimer (AD), Parkinson-like (PD), motor neurone diseases and multiple sclerosis on the island of Guam. Soils drawn from the cluster region demonstrated an excessive fivefold increase in 'magnetic susceptibility' readings in relation to soils from disease free adjoining regions. A multifactorial aetiological hypothesis is proposed that pivots upon the combined exposure to high levels of natural/industrial sources of ferrimagnetic/ferroelectric compounds incorporating Al, Fe, Mn, Sr, Ba (e.g., via yam/seafood consumption or exposure to world war 2 (WW2) munitions) and to low levels of Mg/Ca in all S. Pacific locations where these clusters of neurodegenerative disease have simultaneously erupted. Once gut/blood brain barrier permeability is impaired, the increased uptake of Al, Fe, Sr, Ba, or Mn into the Mg/Ca depleted brain leads to rogue metal substitutions at the Mg/Ca vacated binding domains on various enzyme/proteoglycan groups, causing a broad ranging disruption in Mg/Ca dependent systems - such as the glutamine synthetase which prevents the accumulation of neurotoxic glutamate. The rogue metals chelate sulphate, disrupting sulphated-proteoglycan mediated inhibition of crystal proliferation, as well as its regulation of the Fibroblast growth factor receptor complex which disturbs the molecular conformation of those receptors and their regulation of transphosphorylation between intracellular kinase domains; ultimately collapsing proteoglycan mediated cell-cell signalling pathways which maintain the growth and structural integrity of the neuronal networks. The depression of Mg/Ca dependent systems in conjunction with the progressive ferrimagnetisation of the CNS due to an overload of rogue ferroelectric/ferrimagnetic metal contaminants, enables 'seeding' of metal-protein crystalline arrays that can proliferate in the proteoglycan depleted brain. The resulting magnetic field emissions initiate a free radical mediated progressive pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. The co-clustering of these various types of disease in select geographical pockets around the world suggests that all of these conditions share a common early life exposure to ferromagnetic metal nucleating agents in their multifactorial aetiology. Factors such as individual genetics, the species of metal involved, etc., dictate which specific class of disease will emerge as a delayed neurotoxic response to these environmental insults.
PMID: 15488650 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Med Hypotheses. 2004;63(2):211-25.
High Barn Farm, Elworthy, Taunton, Somerset TA4 3PX, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
High levels of Silver (Ag), Barium (Ba) and Strontium (Sr) and low levels of copper (Cu) have been measured in the antlers, soils and pastures of the deer that are thriving in the chronic wasting disease (CWD) cluster zones in North America in relation to the areas where CWD and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have not been reported. The elevations of Ag, Ba and Sr were thought to originate from both natural geochemical and artificial pollutant sources--stemming from the common practise of aerial spraying with 'cloud seeding' Ag or Ba crystal nuclei for rain making in these drought prone areas of North America, the atmospheric spraying with Ba based aerosols for enhancing/refracting radar and radio signal communications as well as the spreading of waste Ba drilling mud from the local oil/gas well industry across pastureland. These metals have subsequently bioconcentrated up the foodchain and into the mammals who are dependent upon the local Cu deficient ecosystems. A dual eco-prerequisite theory is proposed on the aetiology of TSEs which is based upon an Ag, Ba, Sr or Mn replacement binding at the vacant Cu/Zn domains on the cellular prion protein (PrP)/sulphated proteoglycan molecules which impairs the capacities of the brain to protect itself against incoming shockbursts of sound and light energy. Ag/Ba/Sr chelation of free sulphur within the biosystem inhibits the viable synthesis of the sulphur dependent proteoglycans, which results in the overall collapse of the Cu mediated conduction of electric signals along the PrP-proteoglycan signalling pathways; ultimately disrupting GABA type inhibitory currents at the synapses/end plates of the auditory/circadian regulated circuitry, as well as disrupting proteoglycan co-regulation of the growth factor signalling systems which maintain the structural integrity of the nervous system. The resulting Ag, Ba, Sr or Mn based compounds seed piezoelectric crystals which incorporate PrP and ferritin into their structure. These ferrimagnetically ordered crystals multireplicate and choke up the PrP-proteoglycan conduits of electrical conduction throughout the CNS. The second stage of pathogenesis comes into play when the pressure energy from incoming shock bursts of low frequency acoustic waves from low fly jets, explosions, earthquakes, etc. (a key eco-characteristic of TSE cluster environments) are absorbed by the rogue 'piezoelectric' crystals, which duly convert the mechanical pressure energy into an electrical energy which accumulates in the crystal-PrP-ferritin aggregates (the fibrils) until a point of 'saturation polarization' is reached. Magnetic fields are generated on the crystal surface, which initiate chain reactions of deleterious free radical mediated spongiform neurodegeneration in surrounding tissues. Since Ag, Ba, Sr or Mn based piezoelectric crystals are heat resistant and carry a magnetic field inducing pathogenic capacity, it is proposed that these ferroelectric crystal pollutants represent the transmissible, pathogenic agents that initiate TSE.
PMID: 15236778 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Scientists have made a breakthrough in man's desire to control the forces of nature – unveiling plans to weaken hurricanes and steer them off course, to prevent tragedies such as Hurricane Katrina.
The damage done to New Orleans in 2005 has spurred two rival teams of climate experts, in America and Israel, to redouble their efforts to enable people to play God with the weather.
Under one scheme, aircraft would drop soot into the near-freezing cloud at the top of a hurricane, causing it to warm up and so reduce wind speeds. Computer simulations of the forces at work in the most violent storms have shown that even small changes can affect their paths – enabling them to be diverted from major cities.
But the hurricane modifiers are fighting more than the weather. Lawyers warn that diverting a hurricane from one city to save life and property could result in multi-billion dollar lawsuits from towns that bear the brunt instead. Hurricane Katrina caused about $41 billion in damage to New Orleans.
Hurricanes form when air warmed over the ocean rises to meet the cool upper atmosphere. The heat turns to kinetic energy, producing a spiral of wind and rain. The greater the temperature differences between top and bottom, and the narrower the eye of the hurricane, the faster it blows.
Moshe Alamaro, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), told The Sunday Telegraph of his plans to "paint" the tops of hurricanes black by scattering carbon particles – either soot or black particles from the manufacture of tyres – from aircraft flying above the storms. The particles would absorb heat from the sun, leading to changes in the airflows within the storm. Satellites could also heat the cloud tops by beaming microwaves from space.
"If they're done in the right place at the right time they can affect the strength of the hurricane," Mr Alamaro said.
The theory has so far been tested only in computer simulation by Mr Alamaro's colleague, Ross Hoffman. Mr Alamaro said: "With small changes to this side or that side of the hurricane we can nudge it and change its track. We're starting with computer simulations, then will hopefully experiment on a small weather system."
Last month scientists at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem announced that they had simulated the effect of sowing clouds with microscopic dust to cool the hurricane's base, also weakening it. The dust would attract water but would form droplets too small to fall as rain. Instead, they would rise and evaporate, cooling hot air at the hurricane base.
In findings presented at a conference in Trieste, Italy, the team led by Daniel Rosenfeld demonstrated that dust dropped into the lower part of Hurricane Katrina would have reduced wind speeds and diverted its course.
The MIT team has now hired a professor of risk management to advise on steps necessary to protect themselves from legal action by communities affected if a hurricane is diverted. It is pressing for changes to US law and for an international treaty to settle possible disputes between neighbouring countries.
Mr Alamaro said: "The social and legal issues are daunting. If a hurricane were coming towards Miami with the potential to cause damage and kill people, and we diverted it, another town or village hit by it would sue us. They'll say the hurricane is no longer an act of God, but that we caused it."